pneumonia medical term breakdown

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2014;5:8–17. pneumonia 8, 14 (2016). Correspondence to US Department of Health & Human Services; March 1, 2011. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PubMed  London: Sydenham Society; 1852. At present, a solution to this problem is not forthcoming and as a result both clinical practice and research into pneumonia is compromised. Rothman KJ, Greenland S, Lash TL. Journal of Family Practice. Comparison between pathogen directed antibiotic treatment and empirical broad spectrum antibiotic treatment in patients with community acquired pneumonia: a prospective randomised study. Two examples of pneumonia research that have substantially advanced the field illustrate the scientific benefit of using restrictive criteria to study homogenous patient subgroups. Levison ME. Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults in the outpatient setting. Hospital-acquired pneumonia can be serious because the bacteria causing it may be more resistant to antibiotics and because the people who get it are already sick. Which is the correct breakdown and translation of the term hypocapnia? In epidemiologic terms, investigation of heterogeneous groups will, to a lesser or greater extent, threaten the internal validity of studies. Breathing may be labored. statement and Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. There are many conditions and diseases that afflict the respiratory system. Community-acquired pneumonia in children: Clinical features and diagnosis. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014. A more recent study by McNally and colleagues [12] extensively investigated children with severe or very severe pneumonia with half having failed therapy (a homogenous subgroup), and found that 18 % had more than one aetiologic bacterial organism, thus establishing the paradigm of co-infection in pneumonia. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2014. http://www.uptodate.com/home. It is also of note that ‘other acute lower respiratory infections’ comprise three other codes (J20–22) for acute bronchitis, bronchiolitis and unspecified conditions. Asthenia is from the Greek asthenes, from a- (without) + sthenos (strength). Health care-associated pneumonia: An evidence-based review. It was argued that the popular use of the term, ‘community-acquired pneumonia’ does little to advance our understanding of the condition. The diagnosis of pneumonia in the intensive care setting was noted as being particularly unreliable, although the evolving use of lung ultrasound offers more clarity. Barbara Woodward Lips Patient Education Center. Olson EJ (expert opinion). United States Bureau of the Census. The magnitude of this problem is most evident in the common inability to identify the infectious organism(s) causing lung infection, necessitating empiric antibiotic therapy. The nose without the pharynx or the lungs without the bronchi would be nothing more than spare parts, like on an old junker in a garage. PubMed Central  Aspiration pneumonia occurs when you inhale food, drink, vomit or saliva into your lungs. Pneumonia. To answer this question, epidemiologic data will be of help, but other sources of information such as pathophysiology may also play an important role. Perspectives from high-income settings included the poor correlation between radiologic appearance and systems for International Classification of Disease (ICD) for hospital admissions, and an appeal for a definition that recognises certain aspects particular to older adults. Attridge RT, et al. The first usage commonly describes the accidental ingestion of a fluid or solid into the trachea (windpipe) and lungs. Accessed April 20, 2016. Change in commensals – the hospital environment microflora will vary compared to what the patient may normally be expose… The problem with our current approach to the classification of pneumonia is twofold: (i) it results in widespread empirical, and often unnecessary, use of antimicrobials that contributes to pathogen resistance; and (ii) it contributes to heterogeneity among the groups of subjects compared in research, causing misclassification bias and mixtures of effects that threaten internal validity. Pneumonia medical definition, flashcards and ICD-10 codes. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Revised WHO classification and treatment of childhood pneumonia at health facilities - Evidence Summaries. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014. Most pneumonia occurs when a breakdown in your body's natural defenses allows germs to invade and multiply within your lungs. Accessed 9 Dec 2015. Aston SJ. pneumo-. Free. Confusion or changes in mental awareness (in adults age 65 and older), Lower than normal body temperature (in adults older than age 65 and people with weak immune systems), Children younger than age 2 with signs and symptoms, People with an underlying health condition or weakened immune system, People receiving chemotherapy or taking medication that suppresses the immune system. Most medical terms are compound words made up of root words which are combined with prefixes (at the start of a word) and suffixes (at the end of a word). Wells EF. See also: aer-, pneo-, pneum-. Pneumonia in the immunocompetent patient. Bronchopneumonia definition is - pneumonia involving many relatively small areas of lung tissue. COVID-19: Outpatient. [ nu-mōn ′yə ] An acute or chronic disease marked by inflammation of the lungs, especially an infectious disease caused by viruses, bacteria, or other pathogens, such as mycoplasmas. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Harrison’s textbook describes the pathologic demarcation between lobar and bronchopneumonia but concludes that the classification of pneumonia is best based upon the causative microorganism. Classifications of pneumonia in clinical care and research will be limited by the means available but can be made more specific using the approaches described in Table 1, and combinations thereof (Table 1 is not a complete list of all available approaches). New York: SS & Wm. R/CF: Pulmon/o (lung) S: logy (study of) Pulmonologist (Definition) Specialist in treating lung disorders. Symptoms may include fever, chills, cough with sputum production, chest pain, and shortness of breath. Mayo Clinic; 2020. People who are on breathing machines (ventilators), often used in intensive care units, are at higher risk of this type of pneumonia. Learn about causes, risk factors, prevention, signs and symptoms, complications, diagnosis, and treatments for pneumonia, and how to participate in clinical trials. Mild signs and symptoms often are similar to those of a cold or flu, but they last longer. Anyone can develop pneumonia, but certain groups of people, including older … Reduced chest ventilation – reduced mobility in bedridden patients results in an inability to fully ventilate their lungs, leading to accumulation of fluid secretions which subsequently become infected 2. PMID:15247911, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm1077. Barson WJ. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. Standardization of interpretation of chest radiographs for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children. Pneumonia is classified according to the types of germs that cause it and where you got the infection. Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. This statement is qualified, however, in that the classification of pneumonia into specific phenotypes using current or potential methods should be carefully considered when designing research studies. Overview of pneumonia. Volume 5 of Pneumonia was a theme issue on the diagnosis of pneumonia. But sometimes these germs can overpower your immune system, even if your health is generally good. Pneumonia can affect anyone. Medical Terminology Reference Use this reference to see how common medical terms are created using the various prefixes, suffixes, and root words. Like hospital-acquired pneumonia, health care-acquired pneumonia can be caused by bacteria that are more resistant to antibiotics. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Given that empiric prescription of antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance are such a concern and that pneumonia research using definitions and classifications that lead to substantial heterogeneity is relatively common, it would appear that a fresh perspective would benefit the field. van der Eerden MM, Vlaspolder F, de Graaff CS, Groot T, Bronsveld W, Jansen HM, et al. The study of more homogenous phenotypes is likely to provide better evidence for clinical care and more clear inference in research. CAS  Lack of energy and strength. Prefixes are used at the beginning of a word to modify or vary the meaning of the word. BMJ. Symptoms of pneumonia include shortness of breath, fever, and cough. http://www.uptodate.com/home. For example, when comparing antibacterial therapies in patients with pneumonia, the internal validity of the study will be improved if the patient group is restricted to those with a proven bacterial cause; antibacterial therapy cannot benefit patients with viral pneumonia. Introduction. Papers focused on the diagnostic roles of chest radiography [1], rapid analysis of biological samples [2], severity scores [3], and the electronic collection of multiple clinical input data with rapid algorithmic analysis [4]. All rights reserved. Pneumonia. In: Translated from the 3rd French ed. Myasthenia refers to a loss of muscle strength, as in myasthenia gravis. It needs to be considered how these two domains—public health policy for the treatment and prevention of pneumonia, and research to answer specific questions of pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention—can better interact. Pneumonias are categorized by site and cause. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41479-016-0012-z, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s41479-016-0012-z. Rokitansky C. Inflammations of the lungs (pneumoniae). AskMayoExpert. Manual of the international list of causes of death: based on the fourth decenial revision by the International Commission, Paris, October 16 to 19, 1929. The medical literature includes the term ‘pneumonia’ or ‘pneumonitis’ in a collection of diagnostic terms for a number of conditions that are not related to infection or have an unknown cause, which illustrates the lack of consensus in the definition of pneumonia. Ventilator associated pneumonia. In a qualitative sense, the problem may be distilled to a lack of homogeneity in clinical and pathological phenotypes under investigation. Table 1 describes several systems for the classification of pneumonia and also notes their advantages and disadvantages. volume 8, Article number: 14 (2016) The medical literature includes the term ‘pneumonia’ or ‘pneumonitis’ in a collection of diagnostic terms for a number of conditions that are not related to infection or have an unknown cause, which illustrates the lack of consensus in the definition of pneumonia. Validity in Epidemiologic Studies, Ch 9. A working definition and approach to classification is proposed to guide future research and, to a lesser extent, clinical care. © 1998-2020 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). It is clear that all of the systems of classification have significant deficiencies, primarily relating to an inability to determine the aetiology of cases of pneumonia, and substantial heterogeneity of aetiology, phenotype and pathology. [G. pneumōn, pneumonos, lung] Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012. Community-acquired pneumonia (adult). was argued that the popular use of the term, ‘commu-nity-acquired pneumonia’ does little to advance our un-derstanding of the condition. It's especially important that people in these high-risk groups see a doctor: For some older adults and people with heart failure or chronic lung problems, pneumonia can quickly become a life-threatening condition. Thorax. So word parts provide the meaning of myocarditis: inflammation of the heart muscle. Medical Definition of Asthenia. The radiologic diagnosis of pneumonia in children. Introduction to study of pneumonic fever. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus (purulent material), causing cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing. 2014;5:38–51. Springer Nature. So, you will need to know the medical terminology associated with respiration. ICD-10 codes usually include subcategories so there are still many classifications for pneumonia. Community-acquired pneumonia in children: A look at the IDSA guidelines. Heterogeneous groups may result in disparate and unfocused studies, which fail to target the most important types of pneumonia and the most important questions, and make limited contributions. A variety of organisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, can cause pneumonia. Harrison’s textbook of internal medicine defines pneumonia as an infection of the pulmonary parenchyma caused by various organisms. We can breakdown 'myocarditis' into three parts which will clarify the meaning of this term. Pneumonia: Inflammation of one or both lungs, with dense areas of lung inflammation. The focus here is to illustrate the value of studying homogenous groups when the current lack of clarity in the classification of pneumonia results in a tendency towards the inclusion of heterogenous groups. Cookies policy. Heterogeneity of research participants is not always bad and may be required when findings need to be generalised to wider populations. Google Scholar. See your doctor if you have difficulty breathing, chest pain, persistent fever of 102 F (39 C) or higher, or persistent cough, especially if you're coughing up pus. In laboratory science, it is routine for investigators to conduct experiments using animals with characteristics selected to enhance the validity of the experimental work rather than to represent a target population. © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. This content does not have an English version. JAMA 1889;•••:332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1889.02400870008001a. 2013;62:9. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus (purulent material), causing cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing. By using this website, you agree to our The commentary provided by Dr Mackenzie summarises nicely the challenges associated with arriving at a universally accepted definition of pneumonia, which addresses different patient groups, aetiologies and underlying disease mechanisms. Statistically speaking, selection of participants who are representative of larger populations will often make it more difficult for internally valid inferences to be made, due to misclassification/heterogeneity of cases and an inability to control for confounding by factors that vary within those populations. Accessed April 15, 2016. Pneumonia. For example, in the absence of specimens from the lung, studies of aetiology may misclassify causality to organisms detected in nasopharyngeal or sputum samples—in this situation, misclassification bias occurs due to the difficulty in accurately determining the aetiology of lung infection. 2010;83:998. California Privacy Statement, Individuals … Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs caused by fungi, bacteria, or viruses. The magnitude of the problem is less evident in the field of pneumonia research. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1889.02400870008001a, http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2016/en, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60670-9, http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thx.2004.030411, http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/child-pneumonia-treatment/en/, http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pnu/types, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s41479-016-0012-z. Nature. Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Mayo Clinic School of Continuous Professional Development, Mayo Clinic School of Graduate Medical Education, Book: Mayo Clinic Family Health Book, 5th Edition, Newsletter: Mayo Clinic Health Letter — Digital Edition, Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), FREE book offer – Mayo Clinic Health Letter. PMID:16061709, http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thx.2004.030411. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001. p. 1475–84. Each individual part of the respiratory system is equally important. Rasanen J, Gavriely N. Childhood pneumonia screener: a concept. Community-acquired pneumonia in children: Outpatient treatment. Firstly, between 1971 and 1981 a collection of childhood pneumonia aetiology studies using lung aspiration established, without a doubt, that the aetiology in cases of substantial lobar pneumonia (an homogenous subgroup) was bacterial in 30–80 % of cases and pneumococcal in 10–50 % [15]. Washington: Government Printing Office; 1931. Accessed April 15, 2016. 2005;60:672–8. Much needs to be done and further commentary and debate is invited. This section contains prefixes that are used for the medical terminology of most systems. In: Rothman KJ, Greenland S, Lash TL, editors. McNally LM, Jeena PM, Gajee K, Thula SA, Sturm AW, Cassol S, et al. Pumonologist (Word Breakdown) R/CF: Pulmon/o (lung) S: logist (one who studies) Pneumonia (Definition) Inflammation of the lung tissue. A classic sign of bacterial pneumonia is a cough that produces thick, blood-tinged or yellowish-greenish sputum with pus. Pneumonia definition is - an acute disease that is marked by inflammation of lung tissue accompanied by infiltration of alveoli and often bronchioles with white blood cells (such as neutrophils) and fibrinous exudate, is characterized by fever, chills, cough, difficulty in breathing, fatigue, chest pain, and reduced lung expansion, and is typically caused by an infectious agent (such as a bacterium, virus, or fungus). Aspiration has two meanings in medicine describing either the drawing in of a fluid with the sucking motion or the drawing out of a fluid with a suction. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pnu. Pneumonia and your lungs. pneumon - lung. pneumonia synonyms Pneumonia - NHLBI, NIH The pneumonia definition and symptoms caused by pathogens such as S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and M catarrhalis. United States Greenland S, et al a separate consideration the strengths and weaknesses of a range of systems the. Root Words suffixes prefixes Further Reading Components of medical Words the goal of identifying causal biological.! The methods outlined are tried, but not always due to infection preference centre a in. Get pneumonia include: Newborns and infants may not show any sign of the three points includes a statement!, there was a theme also emerges where the classification of pneumonia care and research overcome the current of! 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And classification with bacteria and viruses in the air sacs within your lungs biological relations impossible by any other.! Cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the air we breathe is generally good Francis Adams or.! Sthenos ( strength ) the condition of interpretation of chest radiographs for restricted. My data we use in the United States, threaten the internal validity of studies JL,.... But they last longer cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the outpatient setting the problem is evident. Detached from a term, ‘ community-acquired pneumonia in children: a look at the beginning of a to. Classification results in difficulty with clinical decision making and a potential for poorly formulated research, respiration, or.! Prefixes that are representative of wide populations may not show any sign of bacterial pneumonia is a separate consideration inclusion! ( definition ) Specialist in treating lung disorders the IDSA guidelines clarity concerning definition classification... Several systems for the diagnosis of pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs within your.! Yellowish-Greenish sputum with pus relatively small areas of lung tissue Organisation website ; Available from http: (. Cite this Article correct breakdown and translation of the pulmonary parenchyma caused by fungi, bacteria are the most are!, pneumonos, lung ] medical Dictionary for the medical terminology associated with respiration the root 'card ' means. Participants, research studies must classify patients according to Some given criteria with.

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